Accounting Tips

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Installment Sale to the Rescue

You’ve finally found a buyer for the rental property, land, or business you’ve been trying to sell but the buyer doesn’t have enough cash to pay the full purchase price in a lump sum. So you agree to an installment sale. The buyer will make a partial payment now and pay you the balance over several years, with interest. The deal’s done, now what about your taxes?

Pay as You Go

Because you’ll receive the payments over more than one tax year, you can defer a portion of any taxable gain realized on the sale. You’ll report only a proportionate amount of your gain each year (plus interest received) until you are paid in full. This lets you pay your taxes over time as you collect from the buyer.

Reduce Surtax Exposure

According to Gainesville Coins the installment sale also might help limit your exposure to the 3.8% surtax on net investment income. Capital gains are potentially subject to this surtax (in addition to regular capital gains tax) but only in years when your modified adjusted gross income (AGI) exceeds a threshold amount: $200,000 if you file as a single or head of household taxpayer, $250,000 if you file a joint return with your spouse, and $125,000 if you are married and file a separate return.

If your AGI is typically under the threshold, recognizing a large capital gain all in one year could put you over the top, triggering the additional 3.8% tax. By reporting your gain on the installment method, you may be able to stay under the AGI threshold and minimize your tax burden.

Take Note

The installment sale method isn’t available for sales of publicly traded securities and certain other sales. And you have the option of electing out of installment sale treatment and reporting your entire gain in the year of sale. Electing out may be advantageous under certain circumstances: for example, if you have a large capital loss that can offset your entire capital gain in the year of sale. Contact your tax advisor for information that pertains to your particular situation.

Renting Residential Real Estat – A Tax Review for the Nonprofessional Landlord

Investing in residential rental properties raises various tax issues that can be somewhat confusing, especially if you are not a real estate professional. Some of the more important issues rental property investors will want to be aware of are discussed below.

Rental Losses

Currently, the owner of a residential rental property may depreciate the building over a 27½-year period. For example, a property acquired for $200,000 could generate a depreciation deduction of as much as $7,273 per year. Additional depreciation deductions may be available for furnishings provided with the rental property. When large depreciation deductions are added to other rental expenses, it’s not uncommon for a rental activity to generate a tax loss. The question then becomes whether that loss is deductible.

$25,000 Loss Limitation

The tax law generally treats real estate rental losses as “passive” and therefore available only for offsetting any passive income an individual taxpayer may have. However, a limited exception is available where an individual holds at least a 10% ownership interest in the property and “actively participates” in the rental activity. In this situation, up to $25,000 of passive rental losses may be used to offset nonpassive income, such as wages from a job. (The $25,000 loss allowance phases out with modified adjusted gross income between $100,000 and $150,000.) Passive activity losses that are not currently deductible are carried forward to future tax years.

What constitutes active participation? The IRS describes it as “participating in making management decisions or arranging for others to provide services (such as repairs) in a significant and bona fide sense.” Examples of such management decisions provided by the IRS include approving tenants and deciding on rental terms.

Selling the Property

A gain realized on the sale of residential rental property held for investment is generally taxed as a capital gain. If the gain is long term, it is taxed at a favorable capital gains rate. However, the IRS requires that any allowable depreciation be “recaptured” and taxed at a 25% maximum rate rather than the 15% (or 20%) long-term capital gains rate that generally applies.

Exclusion of Gain

The tax law has a generous exclusion for gain from the sale of a principal residence. Generally, taxpayers may exclude up to $250,000 ($500,000 for certain joint filers) of their gain, provided they have owned and used the property as a principal residence for two out of the five years preceding the sale.

After the exclusion was enacted, some landlords moved into their properties and established the properties as their principal residences to make use of the home sale exclusion. However, Congress subsequently changed the rules for sales completed after 2008. Under the current rules, gain will be taxable to the extent the property was not used as the taxpayer’s principal residence after 2008.

This rule can be a trap for the unwary. For example, a couple might buy a vacation home and rent the property out to help finance the purchase. Later, upon retirement, the couple may turn the vacation home into their principal residence. If the home is subsequently sold, all or part of any gain on the sale could be taxable under the above-described rule.

Selling Inherited Property? Tax Rules That Make a Difference

Sooner or later, you may decide to sell the property you inherited from a parent or other loved one. Whether the property is an investment, an antique, land, or something else, the sale may result in a taxable gain or loss. But how that gain or loss is calculated may surprise you.

Your Basis

When you sell the property you purchased, you generally figure gain or loss by comparing the amount you receive in the sale transaction with your cost basis (as adjusted for certain items, such as depreciation). Inherited property is treated differently. Instead of cost, your basis in inherited property is generally its fair market value on the date of death (or an alternate valuation date elected by the estate’s executor, generally six months after the date of death).

These basis rules can greatly simplify matters, since old cost information can be difficult, if not impossible, to track down. Perhaps even more important, the ability to substitute a “stepped up” basis for the property’s cost can save you federal income taxes. Why? Because any increase in the property’s value that occurred before the date of death won’t be subject to capital gains tax.

For example: Assume your Uncle Harold left you stock he bought in 1986 for $5,000. At the time of his death, the shares were worth $45,000, and you recently sold them for $48,000. Your basis for purposes of calculating your capital gain is stepped up to $45,000. Because of the step-up, your capital gain on the sale is just $3,000 ($48,000 sale proceeds less $45,000 basis). The $40,000 increase in the value of the shares during your Uncle Harold’s lifetime is not subject to capital gains tax.

What happens if a property’s value on the date of death is less than its original purchase price? Instead of a step-up in basis, the basis must be lowered to the date-of-death value.

Holding Period

Capital gains resulting from the disposition of inherited property automatically qualify for long-term capital gain treatment, regardless of how long you or the decedent owned the property. This presents a potential income tax advantage since the long-term capital gain is taxed at a lower rate than short-term capital gain.

Be cautious if you inherited property from someone who died in 2010 since, depending on the situation, different tax basis rules might apply.

Deductions for Long-Term Care Insurance

Many people are taking a closer look at buying long-term care insurance to protect themselves and their families — just in case. If you are thinking about buying long-term care insurance, you’ll be interested to know that, within limits, premiums paid for qualified policies are deductible as an itemized medical expense. For 2019, premiums for qualified policies are tax-deductible to the extent that they, along with other unreimbursed medical expenses, exceed 10% of your adjusted gross income.

The typical long-term care insurance policy will pay for the nursing home, home care, or other long-term care arrangements after a waiting period has expired, reimbursing expenses up to a maximum limit specified in the policy. Eligibility for reimbursement usually hinges on the covered individual’s inability to perform several activities of daily living, such as bathing and dressing.

Premiums are eligible for a deduction only up to a specific dollar amount (adjusted for inflation) that varies depending upon the age of the covered individual. The IRS limits for 2019 are:

Long-Term Care Insurance Premium Deduction Limits, 2019
Age Premium Limit
40 or under $420
41-50 $790
51-60 $1,580
61-70 $4,220
Over 70 $5,270

Source: Internal Revenue Service

These limits apply on a per-person basis. For example, a married couple over age 70 filing a joint tax return could potentially deduct up to $10,540 ($5,270 × 2). Keep in mind, however, that, for individuals under age 65, itemized medical expenses are deductible only to the extent that they, in total, exceed 10% of adjusted gross income (AGI).

As everyone’s situation is different, consider contacting your tax and legal professionals to discuss your personal circumstances.

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Why a Net Unrealized Appreciation Strategy is Important

Individuals who plan to take distributions of appreciated employer stock from their tax-qualified retirement plan accounts may receive favorable tax treatment by using a “net unrealized appreciation” (NUA) strategy.

This strategy involves taking a “qualifying” lump-sum distribution of employer stock from a qualified plan upon separation from service or another “triggering event” (such as reaching age 59½) and paying ordinary income taxes on only the plan’s cost basis in the stock. NUA is the difference between the shares’ cost basis and their market value at the time of distribution.

When the stock is eventually sold, taxes will be due on the appreciation at distribution at long-term capital gains rates (currently a maximum of 20% for those in the top regular tax bracket) regardless of how long the employer securities may have been held in the plan. Any further appreciation is taxed at either the short-term or long-term capital gains rate, depending on the holding period.

If your plan assets consist primarily of employer stock, consider using the NUA strategy for part of the distribution and rolling over the remaining shares to an IRA. You could then sell the shares in the IRA and buy a more diversified mix of investments.

A Few Considerations

Could you benefit from the NUA strategy? While it can reduce the taxes you pay, it’s not appropriate for everyone. Think about these factors as you make your decision.

 

Time frame. This strategy provides the most benefit when stock won’t be sold for several years.

Taxes. The NUA strategy may be less beneficial if tax rates change or your tax rate declines in retirement.

Diversification. No matter which strategies you employ, it’s important to maintain an adequately diversified portfolio.

To learn more about tax rules and regulations for investments, give us a call today. Our knowledgeable and trained staff is here to help.

…from the Team of Professional at RE-MMAP We are just a click or call away. www.re-mmap.com and phone # (561-623-0241).v

Why Your Cost Basis is Important to You

When you sell securities in a taxable investment account, you have to know your “basis” in the securities to determine whether you have a gain or a loss on the sale — and the amount. Generally, your basis is the price you paid for your shares of stock or a mutual fund, adjusted for any reinvested dividends or capital gain distributions, as well as for any costs of the purchase.

Although the cost basis calculation sounds straightforward enough, there’s more to the story.

Inherited and Gifted Securities

Though basis is usually derived from cost, inheritances are treated differently. Generally, the basis of inherited securities is reset at their date-of-death value.

With gifted securities, the person receiving the securities generally takes the basis of the person who gave them. However, if gift tax was paid, a basis adjustment may be necessary. And, if the securities’ fair market value on the date of the gift is less than their original cost, you use that lower value to determine any loss on a subsequent sale.

Stock Dividends and Splits

Instead of distributing cash dividends, companies sometimes distribute stock dividends. Stock dividends are generally not taxable. However, a basis adjustment needs to be made, in the website http://fullyaccountable.com/ you will find the most prepared professionals to manage each step. If the new stock you receive is identical to the old stock — for example, you receive two new shares of XYZ common stock for each share of XYZ common stock you own — you simply divide the basis of your old stock by the total number of shares held after the distribution to arrive at your new basis for each share.

Stock splits also result in basis adjustments. For example, if a company has a “two-for-one split” of its stock, the original basis must be divided between the two new shares. Conversely, companies sometimes have “reverse splits,” such as when three shares are exchanged for one, in which case the basis in the original three shares is now the basis of the new share.

Keeping track of share basis through a series of mergers, spinoffs, etc., can be very complicated. Often, taxpayers must research the terms of the relevant transactions by contacting the company directly or logging on to the company’s website.

Selling Less Than Your Entire Holding

If you sell less than your entire holding in a particular stock and can adequately identify the shares you sold (“specific identification”), you may use their basis to determine your gain or loss. Adequate identification involves delivering the stock certificates to your broker or, if your broker holds the stock, telling your broker the particular stock to be sold and getting a written confirmation. If you can’t adequately identify the shares you sell, you may use the FIFO –“first in, first out” — method to determine your basis.

With mutual funds, you are also allowed to elect to use the “average basis” method of accounting for shares sold. With this method, the total cost of all the shares owned is divided by the total number of shares owned.

Tax-deferred and Tax-exempt Investments

Cost basis is generally not an issue with securities held in tax-deferred investment accounts, such as individual retirement accounts (IRAs) or employee retirement accounts. With these accounts, you are not taxed on capital gains but will be taxed at ordinary income-tax rates on distributions you receive. (Qualified Roth distributions are an exception.) Also note that though interest on municipal bonds may be tax exempt, any gain realized from selling such bonds is taxable, so it’s important to keep the information you’ll need to determine your basis.

Connect with our team today for all the latest and most current tax rules and regulations.

…from the Team of Professional at RE-MMAP We are just a click or call away. www.re-mmap.com and phone # (561-623-0241).v

Will You have to Pay Taxes on Your Annuities?

Typically, at least a portion of an annuity payment is taxable.* Taxpayers should be careful to distinguish between the portion that represents a nontaxable return of the amount paid for the annuity and the taxable portion.

General Rule

To do this, the taxpayer generally divides the original, after-tax contribution by the expected return on the date the annuity begins. The cost/payout ratio, or “exclusion ratio,” is then multiplied by each installment payment to determine the nontaxable amount.

Example. Mary paid $10,800 for an annuity that will pay her $100 per month for 20 years. Mary’s expected return is $24,000. The exclusion ratio is 45% ($10,800/$24,000). For each $100 installment, $45 will be nontaxable, and the remaining $55 will be taxable.

Note that the expected returns on annuities may vary with the amount and the measuring term. Where the measuring term is someone’s lifetime or joint lifetimes, the IRS has tables for determining the expected return.

With variable annuities, the payout may vary based on such things as investment performance or changes in a particular index. Generally, the exclusion ratio is calculated by dividing the cost of the annuity contract by the total number of anticipated payments. However, if the nontaxable portion exceeds the actual payment, the taxpayer may elect to recompute the exclusion ratio for later years.

“Qualified” Annuities

Individuals sometimes receive all or a portion of the money in their qualified retirement plan accounts as an annuity. Such annuities are referred to as “qualified” annuities, and the method for calculating the exclusion ratio is similar to those described above. Note, however, that if the account assets consist entirely of pretax salary contributions (and earnings on those contributions), the exclusion ratio will be zero, and each installment will be fully taxable.

For more information about investments and taxes, give our tax professional a call today.

* Different rules apply to withdrawals, dividends, and loans from annuity contracts.

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You Have a Year-End Capital Gains Distribution – Now What?

If you are a mutual fund* investor, chances are you will receive a capital gain distribution notice in the next few weeks. Distributions represent your share of gains the fund earned when it sold investments. While gains are welcome, the taxes on them are not. Since gains are a form of income, they’re taxable to you. The exception: Taxes on distributions from mutual funds you hold in a retirement plan won’t be due until you begin taking money out of those accounts.

Capital gain can still occur even if the fund has performed poorly. This happens when a fund manager sells stocks that may be down for the year but that haveincreased in value since their purchase, resulting in a net capital gain. The trend of fund managers to trade holdings frequently in an effort to increase their fund’s return adds to the likelihood that you’ll owe capital gains tax.

In most cases, capital gain distributions from mutual funds held in taxable accounts are taxed as long-term gain, even for investors who have held a fund for less than a year.

Minimizing Expenses

Here are a few ways to reduce the taxes on capital gain distributions.

Offset gains with capital losses. Losses from one investment may be used to offset capital gains from another, dollar for dollar.

Consider tax-efficient funds. A fund that holds its investments is less likely to generate taxable gains than a fund that buys and sells assets frequently. Before you buy, consider the types of investments a fund holds and the fund’s investment philosophy.

Don’t buy a fund immediately before it makes a capital gains payout. You’ll essentially get back a part of your investment in the fund and be taxed on it. Wait until the distribution has been made.

To learn more about capital gains and how they affect your taxes, give us a call today. Our staff of professionals are always happy to help.

*Mutual funds are sold by prospectus, which includes information on charges, expenses, and risks. To receive a current prospectus, please contact your registered representative. You should read the prospectus carefully before investing.

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Understanding Mutual Fund Distributions Tax Consequences

Do you invest in mutual funds? Unless you hold your investment in a tax-deferred account, you’ll want to consider taxes when you look at a fund’s returns. After all, it’s not what your fund earns but what you keep that counts.

Distributions of Fund Income

Mutual funds are required to distribute almost all of their income — including realized capital gains, dividends, and interest
— to their shareholders each year. The tax bite from these distributions reduces the fund’s total return to the investor.

Capital gains. The tax rate on long-term capital gains is capped at 15% for most taxpayers, and 20% for those with higher incomes. However, if a fund sells a security at a gain before meeting the more-than-one-year holding period for long-term capital gain treatment, the gain is considered short term and is taxable to you when distributed at your regular tax rate.
Regular individual tax rates currently range as high as 37%.

Dividends. The tax rates on qualifying dividends mirror the long-term capital gains rates. These rates apply to qualifying dividends a mutual fund receives on stocks in its portfolio and distributes to shareholders. Dividends that don’t qualify for a favorable rate are taxable to you at your regular tax rate.

Interest. Distributions of interest a fund earns on bonds, certificates of deposit, and other interest-bearing investments are generally taxable to you at your regular tax rate. However, interest you receive from a municipal bond fund is generally exempt from federal income taxes (and possibly state taxes as well).

Note that a 3.8% surtax on net investment income may also apply to your capital gains, dividends, and interest from mutual fund investments if your income exceeds a tax law threshold. And you must pay taxes on taxable fund distributions whether or not you reinvest the distributions in additional shares of the fund.

Sales of Fund Shares

When you sell shares in a mutual fund, you’ll typically have a gain or loss to report on your tax return. If the securities in the
fund’s portfolio have gone up in value during the period the fund has owned them, this appreciation is reflected in the share price. Similarly, if the value of the fund’s holdings has dropped, the share price will reflect the loss in value.

Your gain or loss on a sale of fund shares is figured by comparing the amount you realize on the sale to your cost basis in
the shares you sold. If you sell all the shares you own, figuring your taxes is easy. You just add up all the investments you’ve
made, including reinvested dividends and other distributions, and compare that amount to the net sale proceeds to determine whether you have a gain or loss. However, if you don’t sell all your shares at once, you must use an IRS-approved method for figuring your cost basis.

Taxes can have a significant effect on your mutual fund returns. Be sure to consider them in evaluating your investments.

…from the Team of Professional at RE-MMAP We are just a click or call away. www.re-mmap.com and phone # (561-623-0241).v

Understanding Cost Basis of Your Securities

When you sell securities in a taxable investment account, you have to know your “basis” in the securities to determine whether you have a gain or a loss on the sale — and the amount — for tax purposes. Generally, your basis is the price you paid for the investment, adjusted for the costs associated with that purchase, any share splits, reinvested dividends, or capital gain distributions.

Although the cost basis calculation sounds straightforward enough, there’s more to the story.

Inherited and Gifted Securities

Though basis is usually derived from cost, inheritances are treated differently. Generally, the basis of inherited securities is reset at their date-of-death value. This reset is sometimes referred to as a “step-up in basis.”

With gifted securities, the person receiving the securities generally takes the basis of the person who gave them. However, if gift tax was paid, a basis adjustment may be necessary. And, if the securities’ fair market value on the date of the gift is less than their original cost, you use that lower value to determine any loss on a subsequent sale.

Stock Dividends and Splits

Instead of distributing cash dividends, companies sometimes distribute stock dividends. Stock dividends are generally not taxable. However, a basis adjustment needs to be made. If the new stock you receive is identical to the old stock — for example, you receive two new shares of XYZ common stock for each share of XYZ common stock you own — you simply divide the basis of your old stock by the total number of shares held after the distribution to arrive at your new basis for each share.

Stock splits also result in basis adjustments. For example, if a company has a “two-for-one split” of its stock, the original basis must be divided between the two new shares. Conversely, companies sometimes have “reverse splits,” such as when three shares are exchanged for one, in which case the basis in the original three shares is now the basis of the new share.

Keeping track of share basis through a series of mergers, spinoffs, etc., can be very complicated. Often, taxpayers must research the terms of the relevant transactions by contacting the company directly or logging on to the company’s website.

Selling Less Than Your Entire Holding

If you sell less than your entire holding in a particular stock and can adequately identify the shares you sold (“specific identification”), you may use their basis to determine your gain or loss. Adequate identification involves delivering the stock certificates to your broker or, if your broker holds the stock, telling your broker the particular stock to be sold and getting a written confirmation. If you can’t adequately identify the shares you sell, you may use the FIFO — “first in, first out” — method to determine your basis.

With mutual funds, you are also allowed to elect to use the “average basis” method of accounting for shares sold. With this method, the total cost of all the shares owned is divided by the total number of shares owned.

Tax-Deferred and Tax-Exempt Investments

Cost basis is generally not an issue with securities held in tax-deferred investment accounts, such as traditional individual retirement accounts (IRAs) or employee retirement accounts. With these accounts, you are not taxed on capital gains but will be taxed at ordinary income tax rates on distributions you receive. (Qualified Roth distributions are an exception.) Also note that though interest on municipal bonds may be tax exempt, any gain realized from selling such bonds could be taxable, so it’s important to keep the information you’ll need to determine your basis.

…from the Team of Professional at RE-MMAP We are just a click or call away. www.re-mmap.com and phone # (561-623-0241).v

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